Intellectual Property and Its Pervasiveness in Industry Trade and Commerce

Intellectual Property And Its Pervasiveness In Industry Trade And Commerce.What Is Intellectual Propoerty:-Property which comes from the Human Brain and for which Government gives protection is called Intellectual Property Right(IPR). Trademark.Patent,copyright,geographical location are few examples of Intellectual Property(IP). Intellectual property has gained in prominence in many fields of business in recent times. Today, it is a major asset for many of the world’s most powerful companies. The intellectual property of a company is its legally protectable and exploitable invisible assets .It is a sub-set of assets known as “intangibles”. The term “intellectual property (IP)” refers to property in a legal sense. It is something which can be owned and dealt with. The legal rights that give rise to intellectual property are usually referred to as “intellectual property rights (lPRs)”. There are several types of IPRs that qualify as intellectual property. The most widely known lP category is patents. Other categories include copyrights, trade marks, design rights, trade secrets and plant breeders’ rights. In the emerging knowledge economy, lP has become a critical success factor for most high- It is an Intangible Asset.But the future benefits to be derived is uncertain. Hence valuation cannot be made correctly.It has no objectivity or supporting documents unlike our accounting system which is based on objectivity.HISTORICAL BACKDROP LEADING TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF (Intellectual Property Rights)IPRs:-For most of the 19th century, the USA provided no copyright protection for foreignauthors; the argument was that it needed the freedom to copy in order to educate the new nation. Similarly, parts of Europe built their industries by copying the inventions ofothers. The same model was followed later by Japan and even later, after the second world war, by both South Korea and Taiwan.Today, however, developing countries do not have the luxury to take their time over lntellectual Property Rights (IPR). As a part of the trade deal hammered out nine years ago, countries joining the World Trade Organisation (WTO) also signed up to TRIPS (trade-related aspects of IPR), which include patents, copyright, trade marks, trade secrets, geographical indicators and such other items. The poor-er countries of the world were given until 2006 to comply in full with the requirements of this treaty.Contrary to popular perception, TRIPS does not create a universal patent system..Rather, it lays down the ground rules describing the protection that a country’s legal system must provide, Much of the recent debate over the impact of IPR on the poor hascentred on the issues of access to expensive medicines, In April 2001, South Africa won a victory against major drug companies fighting patent reform there, allowing access to cheaper versions of patented rnedicines for AIDS, Encouraged, the developing countries issued a declaration at the WTO meeting at Doha in November 2001 asserting the primacy of public health over IPR. They also resolved that the least-developed countries should bo given at least until 2016 to introduce patent protection for pharmaceuticals.Tricky Proposition:-For the last one year, the (World Trade Organisation)WTO council responsible for TRIPS was involved with a tricky proposition : ‘compulsory licensing”- the manufacture and marketing of a patented drug without the patent-holders consent, This provision has been available since the formation of the WTO and Brazil has already used the threat of “compulsory licensing” to ring substantial price discounts out of major patent-holding drug companies. This has boon permitted under contain conditions, including national emergencies and can be used by countries such as Brazil or India, which have domestic drug industries to copy the medicines. The problem comes with countries that have no drug makers, They can import generic copies from the likes of India. But, can they do so after 2005, when these copying exporting countries are supposed to have fallen in with the TRIPS line? The big patent-holding drug firms in rich countries have worried that Indian and other companies might abuse the deal to flood their markets To arrive at a compromise, the TRIPS council of the WTO Issued a declaration just before the Cancun ministerial started in September 2003,saying that countries could override patents only “in good faith, toprotect public health’, Special measures are also stipulated, such as different shapes, color and packaging, to prevent these generic drugs from getting into rich countries’ markets.Not such a Big Deal:-“Compulsory Licensing” involves poor countries like Kenya, Uganda or South Africa- unable to copy patented medicines to fight scourges like Aids-importing cheaper copies from India. The concerned governments will have to sure public d to people who need such medicines and thus money needed for Imports. Therefore the afflicted countries will have to depend on rich country donors to find tho money. Alternatively, they can approach world bodies which are again funded by rich countries, As such, even though the margin (difference in prices between patented drugs end Indian copies) can be fairly high, these are not really “lucrative” markets. There are also at the vexed questions of red tape and government inefficiency.Look at Ourselves:-In India, to stop and reduce the spread of Tuberculosis there is already in place a framework for Directly Observed Therapy Short-course (DOTS), overseen by several world bodies and our government. The growing number of tuberculosis cases, combined with HI V/Aids, places an immense burden on tuberculosis control activities, The Indian pharmaceutical industry does not look at the prospect (“No sale of over-the-counter prescribed medicines”) – with relish. Perhaps, there is a lesson in this : not a moral lesson (involving right or wrong) but an ethical one (involving fairness or unfairness). There is a limit on profits for drugs fighting public scourges, particularly in poorer countries. Perhaps, there is no scope for “sadistine” pleasure in others’ misfortunes.Medicines for rich (and poorer countries too:-Diseases afflict people in rich countries also. There are two separate kinds of enormous opportunities here.First: For the research-oriented Indian pharmaceutical companies like Ranbaxy, Dr. Reddy’s and many others inventions (and delivery) of new drugs are no longer a possibility but a reality, They will be interested In protecting their IPR through suitable patents.Second: A large number of drugs are going off-patent in the US market very soon, In other words generic versions of these drug can be made by anybody, legally-If they are able to do so. And the Indian pharmaceutical companies – several of them are able to do ao in the most cost-competitive way. During the first six months of the calendar year, thirty four Indian companies made fifty eight filings (called Drug Master Files-DMF’s) more than the combined total of the next five countries. (Itally 21, China 10, Israel 9, Hungary 9 and Spain 5). Outside the US, India h thu highest number of FDA approved manufacturing plants. In fact, the number of such facilities is almost equal to that of approved plants in the US.Beware Bulk Generic drugsManufacture of bulk generic drugs is, however, not a bed of roses. Indian firms producing Penicillin are mortally afraid about imports of the same from China (which is much cheaper) and want protection through tariff barriors raised by the Indian government This will not be possible under the WTO rogime for any length of time.Constitutional And Legal Aspects Relating To IPR On Trade And Services:-Intellectual property rights fall under item 49 of list I Union list of Seventh Schedule to the constitution. The item reads patents, inventions and designs, copyright, trademarks and merchandises marks. Patent is hence a union subject. Protection of patent right was first introduced in 18th century. The Patents Act, 1911, introduced formal protection of patents rights. In Biswanath Prasad Vs Hindustan Metal Industries [ 1982 CS 144 (1979)] the Supreme Court observed, “the object of Patent law is to encourage scientific research, new technology and Industrial progress. Grant of exclusive right to own, use or sell the method or product patented for a limited period stimulates new inventions of commercial utility. The price of the grant of monopoly is the disclosure of the invention at the patents office which after expiry of the fixed period of monopoly passes into public domain”.

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World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), one of the 16 specialised agencies of(United Nations Organisation)UNO, wan established in 1970, WIPO with headquarters at Geneva, Switzerland, became en agency of UNO in December 1974, and It administers 23 InternatIonal trea ties dealing with intellectual property protection.International patenting relationships are based on Paris Convention 1883 for protection of intellectual property. Paris convention is a multilateral treaty covering Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCI) administered by WIPO. PCI provides for the following:-a) Filing a single application in one language and International Search which gives a report on previously published application;b) Centralized publication and option for international preliminary examination.c) Seeks protection in a specific country.Two important amendments of the Indian Patents Act 1970, viz., the patents (Amend- ment) Act, 1999 and the patents (amendment) Act 2002, made recently seemed to be of utmost attempts to adjust Patent Law with the international standards laid down by the TRIPS Agreement as part of Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiation. The whole history of Indian patent law was a history of adjustment with the west allowing them to exercise the Industrial and Import monopolies. Since the Paris Convention, 1883 the West in order to protect Industrial property and to promote expansion of trade monopoly adopted several policies; and one of such policies related to intangibles including patent rights, Because, they visualised that the East and other parts of the World would no longer be effective in operation imperialism. Intellectual property (IP) was considered as a splendid technique to be used for this, laid the initial foundation of successful unification between the patents rIghts and the corporate monopoly, and that ultimately led for form (General Agreement On Traiffs And Trade)GATT in themId Indian Patent law was nothing but the culmination, of joint effort exorcised by the GAIT end MNCS.Valuation Of Intellectual Property:-It is highly difficult to value it since it is highly uncertain to calculate the expected flow of future benefits we are going to derive from it.This paper is about valuing IP assets; it is about how these assets should be valued in the context of external financial reporting. The generation of useful estimates of lP value is also of crucial importance in the context of internal reporting. But internal reporting requires valuation parameters or indicators that are different from those used for the purpose of external reporting. Internal reporting is outside the purview of this paper.Asset Valuation PracticesAsset valuation first of all requires asset recognition. Assets are recognized in the accounts when they meet the definition and recognition tests. There are two principal approaches to valuing assets in accounting: input approach and output approach. Under input approach, the value of an asset is determined based on the cost inputs that have gone, or ought to have gone, into its making. The output approach, on other hand, seeks to determine the value of an asset according to what can be recovered from it either from its outright sate or from its continued use in business operations. Although both approaches are currently in use, the input approach takes the first place of interest. Under the existing GAAP, historical cost is the primary basis of valuation for most assets. In recent years there has been a tendency for the accounting standard setters to prescribe current value measurement in some areas, but historical cost-driven valuation is still the predominant valuation basis in accounting. Asset valuation in accounting is guided by two principal considerations,relevance and reliability. The values assigned to the assets reported on the balance sheet should be relevant as well as reliable. If there is a conflict between relevance and reliability, the latter wins over the former. Since historical cost- based values are derived from past transaction costs, they easily pass the reliability test. Historical values are adjusted downwards when there is evidence of impairment of value. But upward adjustments generally are not permitted. However, in some jurisdictions, upward revaluation is permitted when certain specified conditions are met.Most common example is the valuation of “Land & Building”.Why IP Assets Need a Different Valuation Approach ?Accounting Standard 26 And International Accounting Standard(IAS) 38,contains valuation of Intellectual Property.The transaction-cost based approach is inconsistent with the role of IP assets. Acquired IP assets may be valued based on transaction costs, but valuing internally developed IP assets according to past transaction costs is not a feasible proposition. In most cases the transactions that give rise to an lP asset cannot be objectively identified. For example, patents developed over a long period have no identifiable costs. Even if the costs of developing an IP asset are identified, those costs may not bear any relationship to the asset’s actual value. This is an important reason why most internally developed lP assets are not reported on the balance sheet. Accounting standard setters are grappling with the issue, but the mismatch between accounting principles and the appropriate valuation of IP and similar assets continues to exist. They are yet to develop an acceptable basis for solving the problem of trade-off between relevance and reliability.lP assets are different in many significant respects from the traditional assets. Many of IP assets are contexts specific. In most cases, the real value of an lP asset depends to a great extent upon the ability of the company owning the asset to utilize it efficiently and effectively. The value in most cases also depends upon the ability of the company to exclude others from using the asset. Because of this, it becomes. often difficult to determine reliable ways of assigning values to IP assets. Considerable research in recent years has gone into solving the problems of valuation of lP and other intangible assets and, consequent upon which, some valuation models have been developed (e.g., Intangible Assets Monitor of Sveiby, the Skandia Model and the Balanced Scorecard of Kaplan and Norton). But none has gained common acceptance.Alternative Valuation Approaches:-There are a number of tested ways of valuing IP. While choosing a valuation method a company should first of all determine how the asset being valued will create value for it. An asset may create value for its owner by generating additional revenues, by saving costs or by giving competitive advantage. It is the way an asset creates value for the owner which should determine which valuation approach is to be adopted. An overview of possible valuation approaches is provided below.(1) Discounted Cash Flow(DCF) Approach:-The DCF approach is considered as an ideal approach for valuation of assets. At the most fundamental level, the value of an asset is determined by three factors; how much it is expected to generate in cash flows; the timings of generation of those cash flows; and the degree of uncertainty associated with the cash flows. The DCF approach takes into consideration all these factors. Under this approach, the value of an asset is the discounted present value of its estimated future cash flows. To apply this valuation approach it is necessary to examine the conditions under which the lP asset will be used and to develop an agreed basis for projecting future earnings and expenditures attached to the asset. The projected amounts are then discounted by applying an appropriate discount factor. The success of this approach depends on the accuracy with which the future cash flow projections are made.(2) Excess Operating Profits Approach:-The excess operating profits approach determines the value of an IPR asset by capitalizing the excess profits the business expects to generate with the help of the asset. There are several ways in which the excess profits may be calculated. One possible way of computation of such profits is to make estimates of profits the business would earn without the asset.,i.e. to say the profit the firm would earn in the normal course of business had the IPR being not inducted into the business.(3)Replacement Cost Approach:-This approach seeks to value an IP asset by quantifying the amount of money that would be required to replace the asset or creating an equivalent asset. The replacement cost approach is based on the assumption that there is some relationship between cost and value.(4)Market-Based Approach:-The market-based approach values IP assets by looking to the prices of comparable assets which have been traded between knowledgeable parties at arm’s length in an active market. If it is possible to identify transactions that are exactly comparable, the approach will work satisfactorily well. But in most cases the search for a comparable transaction proves to be a futile exercise.(5)Cost/Royalty Savings Approach:-The cost savings method values savings that the enterprise expects to make as a result of owning the IP asset. If the enterprise owning the asset is in a position to calculate the costs it has saved as a result of introducing the new asset, it can easily arrive at a basis for assigning an appropriate value to the asset. Under the royalty savings approach, the enterprise is to develop estimates as to the amounts of royalties it would have to pay if it were to license an asset to generate the return it is earning on the existing asset.(6)Twenty-five Percent Approach:-The “twenty-five percent” technique is used in many cases to value patents and technology. The technique is based on rules of thumb. Under this technique, the value of an lP asset is computed as being equal to twenty-five percent of the gross profit earned on products that use the services of the asset. The validity of the technique is difficult to prove.(7)Options-Based Approach:-The options-based approach requires the use of the concept of options in assigning value to IP assets. Options-based approach is currently used in valuing financial derivatives. But the options-based valuation model can easily be extended to other categories of assets. The owner of an intellectual property has a variety of choices as to how he will use the asset. Option pricing models attempt to estimate the economic values for each of these possible choices.The choice of valuation methods should not be arbitrary. It should be determined by the company characteristics and by the way in which the company delivers its products and services. If the value attributed to lP assets cannot be incorporated into the balance sheet for technical reasons, the information may be provided on a supplementary basis. But this should be done in a systematic and consistent way.Assigning a value on lP assets is a challenging job. It is a challenging job especially when the exercise needs to be done in the context of preparation and presentation of external financial statements. But the accounting profession should be prepared to ac cept the challenge. It should promote measures for revamping the existing accounting system. The existing financial reporting gap caused by the failure of the accountingsystem to acknowledge important assets needs to be shortened. Effort should be made to see to it that financial statements provide an accurate portrait of corporate resources.INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIESMost countries aim at encouraging innovations by framing laws to regulate the copying of Ideas, inventions, literary and other creative expressions, unique names, busir. modo Industria proco symbols, computer program codes, etc. Four separ and dlstinct types of intangible property, viz., patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets are together referred to as intellectual property (IP), IP Is therefore any product of human Intellect that is unique and un-apparent having some market value. IP has many of the characteristics possessed by real and personal property. However, the most significant difference between IP and other forms of property is that IP is Intangible and therefore It cannot be defined or identified by physical parameters. It has to be expressed in some characteristic manner in order to be protected.Since PP Is an asset, It can be bought, sold, licensed, exchanged, or gifted away like any other type of property, Again, the owner/creator of an lP has the right to prevent the unauthorized use or sale of such property, All the four types of PP are protected by national governments by conferring rights to IP Intellectual property rights (IPRs) have been defined as ‘rights given to people over the croations of their minds’ (WTO) website TRIPS material). Since IPRs are protected by national governments, the scope of protection and the requirements for obtaining protection will vary from one country to another.In the developed world there exIsts a powerful lobby of those who believe that all IPAs are good for business, benefit the public at large and act as catalysts for soclo-economic end technoloqical progress. In the developing world, there exists a strong view that lPRs are likely to cripple the point of national Industry and technology, harm the people and benefit only the developed world. The process of implementing the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) has not resulted in reducing the gap between these two sides. In fact, It has helped to strengthen the opposing arguments in existence. Those who are in favour of more IPRa and the creation of a level playing f/old consider TRIPS as a useful tool with which to achieve their objectives. But those who view IPRa as damagIng for developing countries believe that the economic playing field which was already uneven before has become much more unequal with the introduction of TRIPS.The developed world has accepted and adjusted to lPRs since long. Though some times the disadvantages of IPR8 are more than their advantages, most of the countriesin the developed world are economically strong enough and have well-developed legal mechanisms to take care of the problems Involved. Again, those countries have adequate national wealth and infrastructure to capitalise on the opportunities available when advantages of IPRS are more than their disadvantages. But, in all probability, this is not true In the case of developing countries.The issue is how national IPRs can be designed with a view to benefitting the developing countries to the maximum extent. Rigorous standards relating to IP so tar as the developing countries are concerned should not be insisted upon before an objective assessment is made of the Impact of such standards on development. Developing countries may find lPRs useful only when they are accommodated to suit local conditions and the International institutions and all the countries, both developed and developing, need to consider that.The advocates of IPRs, particularly those in business and government in the developed countries, are of the view that IPRs help to stimulate economic growth and reduce poverty in the developing countries in the same way as in the developed countries, However, people from different social quarters in the developing countries have rightly pointed out the fallacy & this argument. They have categorically stated that IPRs can help to generate invention In all the developing countries because the requisite human and technological capability may, in all probability, not always be present. Contrary to the assertion of the proponents, lPRs have lead to increase in the costs of essential medicines and agricultural Inputs, and have made life difficult for the poor people, including farmers, in the developing countries.

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The scope, extent, and role of IPR protection have expanded at a very fast rate over the last two decades or more. lPRs have been created to cover many new technologies, viz., information technology and biotechnology and a large number of patents have been taken particularly with respect to genetic materials. Minimum standards for IP protection have been made global as a result of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Agreement on TRIPS. Extensive discussions are also going on in the World Intellectual Property Qrganisation (WIPO) in order to harmonise the patent system still further, This apart, bilateral or regional trade and investment agreements between the developed and developing countries in most cases cover mutual commitments to implement IP regimes surpassing the minimum standards set by TRIPS. This means that the developing countries are under continuous pressure to increase the levels of IP protection in their own countries at par with the standards set in the developed countries.Even in developed world, apprehensions are there regarding the functioning of IPRsystems. In recent times, application for patents has increased manifold and it is being perceived that many patents of poor quality and/or having too wide scope are being issued. There is also the possibility that many companies may have to spend considerable amount of time and money in order to determine how or whether to carry on research without the infringement of others’ patent rights, or allowing others to infringement upon their own patent rights The benefits arising out of such expenditure of time and money need to be weighed against the huge costs involved in patent litigation and efforts should be made to reduce such non-productive/less-productive expenditure.These apprehensions about u impact of IP are equally true for the developing world. Moreover, the developing countries should be cautious about the direct impact that the IP systems In developed countries may have on them, e.g. the developing countries may not be gettIng the benefits of research work (on some Important matters seriously affecting them) that are being carried out in the developed world. Again, the developing countries are being largely deprived of their legitimate share of benefits arising from commercialisation of their knowledge/resources if these are patented in the developed countries.An important point to consider is whether the rules relating to IP protection and institutions entrusted with their implementation which have evolved so far in the developed countries can at all be useful for the developing countries In the process of their socio-economic development and particularly in their efforts towards poverty alleviation.In some social quarters there Is a strong belief that IP protection of some kind is also useful for the developing countries as it may motivate them to make inventions and develop new technologies that will ultimately be beneficial in their soclo-economic envi rons. But that will result in high costs for the consumers and other users of such protected technologies. It therefore becomes necessary to consider whether the benefits outweigh the costs. This, in turn, will depend on the nature of application of IPRa and the socio-economic conditions in vogue in the country where they are being applied. There fore, IP protection standards, benefiting developed countries, may be disastrous for developing countries since the latter have to satisfy even their basic needs largely by drawing upon the knowledge developed in other countries, particularly the developed ones.The situation in the developing countries is quite different. While it Is true that most of the developing countries are not technologically very advanced, they do possess very rich knowledge developed over the centuries and valuable resources of varied types ; can benefit not only their own countries but the world at large, The fundamental question that arises is whether the IP systems so far generated in the developed world can help to protect such knowledge and vast resources and guarantee justice to their owners.From the point of view of the government, conferring of the IP right is a matter of public policy and hence the IP policy should be so designed that the benefit to society (in terms of improvement in basic facilities and infrastructure and technological innovation) must out-weigh the cost to the society (in terms of the high cost to be paid by the consumers and the cost of administering the system). But the point is that the IP right Itself being a private one, the financial benefits and costs fall on different social groups.An IP right may be viewed as a means for enabling countries to facilitate the enjoyment of basic socio rights. IPRs should never be allowed to dominate over the fundamental human rights. In fact, IPRs (e.g., patents and copyrights), granted by governments, are short-term in nature but the basic human rights are inherent to the human being. Unfortunately, today in most cases, lPRs are treated as economic and commercial rights held by the corporations rather than individual inventors. The granting of suchrights and their application in their developing countries will, in all probability, benefit the holders of the lPRs at the expense of the basic human rights of the poor people of thedeveloping countries who will be largely be deprived of even the basic necessities of life due to the high costs involved.The problem is that, the interests of the owners/creators of IPs continue to dominatethe formulation of lPR policies, and those of the ultimate consumers are pushed to the hedge. The developing countries operate from a weaker position while negotiating with the developed countries in matters relating to lPRs, Thus, policy makers should seriously examine the possible effects of implementation of the IPRs on the ultimate consumers before going for further extension of IPRs instead of simply taking care of the interests of the owners/creators of lPRs,The crux of the whole thing is that the commercial interests of the developed world often come in conflict with the developmental needs of the developing countries. What is important is that too high IPR standards should not be indiscriminately imposed on the developing countries and relevant technologies should be made available to them at competitive prices. The developing countries also need to strongly put up their causes in different world forum and countries like India and China are expected to play a leading role in this respect.References:-(1)Adapted From Website Of Policy Statement Of Embassy Of India.(2)Referential Notes Of Dr.UttamKr.Dutta,Reader , Department Of Commerce,University Of Burdwan,Golapbagh,Burdwan:713104.(3)Journal On Intellectual Property ,published from Burdwan University,Page no.23-26,Pages.50-56.(4)Abstract From Sujit Sikdar And Pranjit Kumar Nath,prof. and Lecturer respectively,of the Department Of Commerce,Gauhati University.

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Supplements: Enhancing Fitness and Body Building To achieve the body that you desire, you need to keep moving and work out; and to better achieve faster results, you can also add supplements to your daily routine. Working out is a very tiring process and it is a true testament to the cliche, ‘No Pain, No Gain’. To help your body push its limits, supplements are there to provide that extra energy boost that you would need to keep on working out. Supplements are also known for feeding the body with the right nutrients that your body would crave for after a good workout. With all the offerings available in the market, one can easily get confused on which supplement to invest in. Which one is the best workout supplement to get to help you in achieving your body goals? You have to be extra careful in selecting these supplements as these are intended to create and even alter your body’s composition while you are working out. There are different types of supplements to choose from. Those that are considered as pre workout supplements are taken before you start the workout session to unlock more energy. There are also the post workout supplements that will provide your body the protein it needs to help burn more fat and gain more muscle. There are also several companies that market their own versions of these nutritional supplements and by reading reviews on which one works best, you are not just getting your money’s worth, you are also protecting your body.
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The current bodybuilding supplements that are in the marketed now are said to be free from any steroids making it more effective. Minus these steroids, your body’s hormones will not get altered while you are getting the stamina and extra energy boost. One thing that users should bear in mind that these products are intended to be supplements and not as a replacement for the daily food we consume. Additionally, prospect users of these supplements should also do a little reading on the possible effects of these products to their bodies.

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You Need a Locksmith and These Are The Reasons Why For most people out there, the thought of a locksmith always comes with it the notion that they’re the ones who should be called whenever you’re locked out of your home. However, these individuals actually do more than just unlock. The fact is you eventually will acknowledge the value of a locksmith once you’re caught in certain instances or scenarios. There’s no denying that you aren’t really convinced that it’s high time to find a locksmith, but maybe these reasons we listed below might change your mind. 1 – If you happen to be moving to a new house soon, then you’ll need a locksmith for the transition. The main reason why you need a locksmith when moving into a new home is because you want someone to change all the door locks before you settle in. You should know that once the building of your home is done, you never can tell who has access to the keys to your new home, so the best thing to do is simply change the locks.
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Elements To Consider When Selecting Window Wells Window well covers are material sheets that are used to cover the exposed part of a basement window and are installed with the aim of avoiding an accident such as a fall or prevent water from getting into a room. Window well covers are typically available in different sorts of materials, for instance, metal material which ranges from steel to aluminum or plastic material, for instance, polythene, however there are a couple of factors to consider while picking window well covers. The primary component to consider is the attack of the window cover and the most ideal approach to pick a fitting window well cover is by taking the correct measure of the storm cellar window so as to guarantee that the cover picked will fit well to the window this is on account of a window well cover that is not fit will probably expand the odds of rain water and different things from going into the house. The other element to consider is the material used to fabricate the window well covers as various materials have an alternate toughness, thus it is essential for a person to pick a material that is solid and that it can have the capacity to keep going for a more drawn out and it likewise ought to be solid. One should consider the style or theme of the house when choosing window well covers so as to enhance the appearance of the house, for example using a mesh may prevent falls especially with children the mesh will not prevent rain water from entering into the house, hence it is important to consider the theme of the house but at the same time ensure that the material you choose is efficient in preventing falls and other foreign objects from entering the house. One should also choose a window well cover that has a warranty which should be able to last for a period of years as this means that in case the window gets damaged or one has issues with the window then they can be able to contact the company they bought it from so that it can be fixed at no cost. One should also determine the style of the window well cover as there are many designs available such as a flat window well cover or a bubble window well cover, hence it is important for one to determine which style they wish to have for example a bubble window well cover tends to prevent children from falling due to the shape of the window cover as compared to a flat window well cover.What I Can Teach You About Resources

What I Can Teach You About Resources

Pianos – My Most Valuable Tips

How to Buy the Perfect Piano You’re going to find that there are a lot of good reasons to think about getting trained on a musical instrument. There is nothing quite like being able to express your emotions with the help of an instrument. Of all the instruments that people like to learn to play, it’s easy to see how the piano is often at the top of the list. The musicality of this instrument tends to be greater than any other, the variety of things you can play on it will really make it worth the cost. If you are thinking about buying a piano for yourself, it’s going to be important for you to look at a few of the things below to help you ensure you’re making the right choice. When you want to make sure you’re finding the right type of piano, there is no question that you’ll have to first start by testing them out in person. The truth is that finding the kind of piano that plays to your liking will do more to increase your love for your instrument than just about anything else. If you really want to be sure that you’re finding the right kind of piano, then you should take some time to really test out as many different types of options as possible before making a decision. There is no question that the effort you can put into trying out all the pianos in the area will make it much more worth your while when you’ve been able to end up with the one that works well for your tastes.
Understanding Pianos
Of course, it’s also important that you have a good understanding of the kind of price that you would be able to pay for a piano. While it’s always a good idea to budget a fair amount of money for any kind of piano that you’ll be purchasing, the truth is that there are still a number of good methods of finding the kind of savings you need on all kinds of pianos. One of the most effective ways to find the right piano will to discuss your financial situation with some music store owners who could offer you discounts. Many people will also be able to find all kinds of great pianos to purchase when they look out for a few local sales.
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Any time you see a piano that plays beautifully and falls into your price range, you should make sure that you choose to purchase it. When you’re trying to make sure that you’re finding the right kind of enriching life, knowing that you’ll be able to play your piano at any time is going to be an incredibly empowering thing.

Learning The “Secrets” of Advisors

Thinking About Hiring Your First Financial Advisor? Check Out This Guide First! Everyone has to have a starting point in regard to investing and planning for his or her family’s financial future. Even the most seasoned investor was once a novice, remember! If you’re a Sydney resident who is thinking about doing some serious financial planning for the first time, you should read this guide carefully. As you read, you will hopefully gain some valuable insight into how to select a good financial advisor who can oversee your best interests now and years from now as your needs change. The questions that are featured here are fairly basic, so it’s a good idea to ask all of them each time you meet with a new prospective financial advisor in Sydney. A number of people who are going through this process find that it is easiest to jot down these questions in an effort to remember everything. You also ought to take notes during each of your appointments; advisors are used to this, so they won’t think about it whatsoever. How Long Have You Worked in Financial Services?
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If you’re going to entrust your family’s financial future to someone, at least to a large extent, it’s important for him or her to have enough experience that you feel confident handing over the reins, so to speak. Thus, the more financial planning experience your new advisor has, the better you will probably feel about the situation. This certainly doesn’t mean that there aren’t young people who serve as good financial advisors, but you should likely avoid choosing a professional who has clocked fewer than three years in the industry at this point.
Figuring Out Experts
What Will I Have to Pay in Fees? When you hire a Sydney financial advisor, you should be prepared to pay some fees for his or her services. There are those financial advisory firms that don’t pay their advisors any kind of commission, but the majority do. Most of the time, financial advisory firms do not gouge their clients with fees; nonetheless, it’s important to know what your bill will be and how many times per year you can expect to receive it. Did Any of the Advisors on Your Shortlist Standout? Many people, after meeting with all of the independent financial advisors on their shortlists, get a gut feeling about one of them. Provided that he or she has the necessary skill set to get you where you want to be, this is the professional you and your family ought to hire to help you for many years to come. Transferring all of your information from one financial advisor to someone else is no picnic, so if you can, make a point of making the correct decision this time.

How I Achieved Maximum Success with Services

Important Things That You Need To Know When It Comes To Building Your Business

One things that you need to know when it comes to building your own business is the fact that there are so many possible ways on how you can go about successfully doing it. When we say ways on how you can go about building your own business, we are actually referring to methods and techniques such as building the presence of your business online through the use of digital as well as viral marketing methods. Apart from making the most use of marketing methods that are digital and viral, you can also build your own business by building it dominance in the market through the proliferation of the services or even the products you are offering. As a matter of fact, there are actually quite a number of ways, methods and techniques that you can use to build your own business such as the much literal form – build your own business. If you are planning on expanding or perhaps you are thinking of developing your business, then there really is a need for you to build your business in the physical sense of the matter. The time will really come when you will find yourself in need of a manufacturing space, a new office or even a warehouse that your business can occupy, most especially if your business is growing at a rapid rate. And because of that, we have written this article for the purpose of giving you some sound and smart advises with regards to how you will be able to build your ow business hence, if you are interested to know what these are, please feel free to continue reading this article.

When it comes to building your business, there is a need for you to make sure that you are following every single law, regulations and legal guidelines possible. The most important and the most vital thing that you need to always bear in mind when constructing new spaces or even locations is to see to it that you are operating within the legal boundaries or limits mandated by the law. In addition to that, you also need to see to it that you always have the permission of conducting any adjustments to building or constructing a new one and also, to make sure that you are always following the standards for construction as well as demolition.

For you to be able to build your business is a successful manner, you need not only have to follow every legal guidelines existing but also, you need to figure out or discover the possible needs that your business may have. It is very important for you to know what the new space you have constructed or built is for as it will help you know your needs and limitations of your projects.

Doing Companies The Right Way

Factors To Consider When Choosing An Environmental Consulting Firm Environmental consulting is a sort of consistence system whereby the environmental consulting firms ensures that their client’s keeps up the practices which ensures that it progresses safeguarding of the environment. There are a few Environmental consulting firms which one can have the capacity to enlist do that they can have the capacity to furnish their customers with guidance required in order to guarantee that the customer consents to the ecological controls set by the state. However there are a couple of variable to consider while securing the organizations of an environmental consulting firms, for instance, the reputation of the characteristic advising firm and a standout amongst the best ways one can have the ability to find the best consulting firms is by getting recommendations from different affiliations that have had an involvement with the unmistakable firms as they will be in a better position than propose the best common advising firm for your affiliation. One should in like manner consider the experience of the consulting firms as different firms have various levels of capacity which is frequently acquired by means of doing their middle activities in the midst of the years hereafter it is basic for one to pick an advising firm that has agreeable inclusion in association with the kind of consultancy you require from them. One should moreover consider the cost that is as often as possible associated with getting an environmental consulting firm as different firms have unmistakable charges hereafter it is basic for one to accumulate assorted quotes from different directing firms then find the opportunity to consider their charges so one can have the ability to have a disagreeable gage of the present market charges and this along these lines saves the individual from being charged hidden costs as there are a couple firms which frequently charge their clients for work or organizations that have not been given.
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One should similarly ensure that the environmental consulting firm they wish to utilize furthermore outfits its clients with screw up free reports keeping in mind the end goal to ensure that the client extends a keep running past with the exercises they wish to finish this is in light of the fact that if the client goes out a report overflowing with errors then this suggests they won’t be surrendered the thumbs up to initiate their endeavors.
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One should in like manner consider the sort of development that the environmental consulting firm uses for their work for example the advancement used to gage the various objects of nature and moreover the kind of advancement used to deliver their disclosures and besides reports, for instance, programming’s that can make reports as they are consistently thought to be free of mix-ups.

How I Became An Expert on Sales

5 Tips for Success for Pizza Franchises

With an affordable indulgence that has been popular for decades, the success of pizza franchises can withstand just about anything. To make your pizza restaurant a success.

Choose your business properly There are lots of various kinds of pizza companies available, from shipping to consume into take n bake pizzas. You’ll find restaurants that provide only pizza and people that offer different entrees and side dishes. Decide what type of business you will have the top experience with. If you enjoy what you do, it will be apparent to your customers and your employees.

Choose your location correctly One of the biggest factors in the success of any business is often its location. Fortunately, with pizza companies, you’ll usually get help in choosing the right area for your highest profit margin. Work together with your business use that area for the highest and to obtain the ideal location for the restaurant. Forge a relationship with the businesses around it and with the local community.
Doing Options The Right Way

Depend on support and your training Among the best reasons for running a franchise is the fact that a lot of the toughest work had been done for you. The pizza recipes, the marketing as well as the menu selections have already been picked and proven to be a success with customers. It offered also provides you with assistance in every part of the company. Market research has already been conducted on what the customers want to eat and how they want it prepared, making your main job to stick as closely with the company’s plan as possible to ensure that you reach the success made possible that that company.
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Develop repeat business Pizza franchises are made on repeat customers. If you can keep the weekly pizza buyers coming back week after week, you have a steady income stream that won’t be interrupted by new fads or new pizza restaurants. Individuals are remarkably devoted to their favorite pizza restaurant, rendering it very important to create excellent customer relationships. Make certain that you commit to a top quality of customer care in addition to a superior quality of pizza and you’ll keep your repeat business.

Keep your prices as little as possible With pizza franchises, one of the factors that is most important is cost control. Keeping waste low often comes down to effective training of employees. The price of some pizza elements, for example grain and cheese, may vary using the marketplace, making any food waste a significant cost issue. Make sure that your staff is trained properly in the art of pizza making to stop any unnecessary waste. Just a little spilled cheese from each pizza can mean pounds of lost cheese each day. Use your business’ education resources properly to guarantee the most effective workers feasible and you’ll keep your costs low.

Discovering The Truth About Music

Why You Should Hire Wedding DJ

When planning for your wedding reception, you should really consider hiring a professional wedding DJ to let the good times roll. If there is good music at a wedding, a lot of people will really enjoy and dance to the great music. If you really want you and your guests to experience a great time in your wedding reception, then one way you can really do that is hire a wedding DJ. It is actually pretty beneficial to hire a professional wedding DJ and we are going to look at the reasons why this is so. DJ’s can really benefit a wedding reception in so many ways and we are going to look at only three of those ways so without further due, let us begin and see why a wedding DJ can benefit the bride and groom and all the guests that were invited.

Weddings are important parts in peoples lives and they will really want to remember the day they got married; with good music, they can really remember the feeling and the memories. Wedding DJs are very experience in keeping the party going. There will never be a dull, quiet moment when you have a wedding DJ at your reception. It is important that you get an experienced DJ who knows what songs should be played at a wedding and you will never be sorry. If you are worried about what songs will be played at the wedding reception, do not worry because you can review what songs will be played. So this is the first benefit that you will receive when you hire a professional DJ – you get someone who will manage your songs.

If you do not have music equipment for the wedding, hiring a professional DJ will really benefit you because they already have all the equipment that you would need. And since they are professionals, you can be sure that they have professional audio systems. If you want to have good music with a superior sound system, hiring a professional DJ is your answer. You can now be sure that your guests will be dancing and partying to the music because of the wonderful and very crisp sound system that a professional DJ can offer. So you can be sure that when you hire wedding DJs, you are getting some of the best audio systems out there that can really blast music away.
Understanding Artists

The last benefit that we are going to look at today is that it is beneficial to hire a wedding DJ because not only will them come with their sound systems but they will also come with their lighting equipment. DJ’s usually have their own lighting system so you do not have to go through all the hassle of figuring out the lighting systems and all that because a DJ already has them all for you. It is really fun when the whole wedding party is set up and the light start flashing and the great music starts playing. Never worry about lighting systems anymore because wedding DJ’s will do it all for you if you just make the decision to hire them.What Research About Artists Can Teach You